Visualization

Klamp’t allows you to easily produce custom interactive visualizations with just a few lines of Python code. This is extremely useful for debugging!

The klampt.vis module features:

  • Hardware-accelerated OpenGL visualizations using PyQT (available with pip install PyQt) or GLUT (pip install PyOpenGL)

  • Unified interface to Jupyter notebooks and HTML output

  • Can draw most anything supported in Klampt, as well as text

  • One-line visual debugging with vis.debug()

  • One-line visual editing with resource.edit()

  • Automatic animations

  • Simple plotting

  • Multi-window management

  • Animation exporting (available with ffmpeg and pip install Pillow)

  • Camera fitting and automatic following control

  • In-GUI scene customization available (available with pip install pyqtgraph)

Quick start

Ultra-quick start: use vis.debug(), which pops up a window to display the given Klamp’t objects. For example:

from klampt import *

#some Klamp't code to load a world with a robot
w = WorldModel()
w.readFile("Klampt-examples/data/tx90_scenario.xml")
r = w.robot(0)
q0 = r.getConfig()
r.randomizeConfig()
qrand = r.getConfig()

#show it
vis.debug(qrand,{'color':[1,0,0,0.5]},world=w)

#some more Klamp't code to load a geometry
g = Geometry3D()
g.loadFile("Klampt-examples/data/objects/srimugsmooth.off")

#show it
vis.debug(g)

Ultra-quick start2: If you want to visually edit a Klamp’t object, just call io.resource.edit(name,object,...). The klampt.io.resource.edit() function has many options to configure how the editor should be configured. For example, to edit robot configurations and show objects around the robot, you would use io.resource.edit(name,config,world=world,referenceObject=robot).

For any more advanced usage, you will want to manage a scene using the vis module. The basic use of the module is straightforward:

  1. Add things to the visualization scene with vis.add(name,thing). Worlds, geometries, points, transforms, trajectories, contact points, and more can be added in this manner.

  2. Modify the scene using modifier calls like aft vis.setColor(name,r,g,b,a), vis.hide(name), or vis.remove(name).

  3. Launch visualization window(s)

  4. Continue adding, modifying, and removing things as you desire.

  5. You may then close the window when you are done, or wait until the user closes the window.

For example:

from klampt import *
from klampt.model.trajectory import RobotTrajectory
import time

#some Klamp't code
w = WorldModel()
w.readFile("Klampt-examples/data/tx90_scenario.xml")
r = w.robot(0)
q0 = r.getConfig()
r.randomizeConfig()
qrand = r.getConfig()
r.setConfig(q0)

#add a "world" item to the scene manager
vis.add("world",w)
#show qrand as a ghost configuration in transparent red
vis.add("qrand",qrand,color=(1,0,0,0.5))
#show a Trajectory between q0 and qrand
vis.add("path_to_qrand",RobotTrajectory(r,[0,1],[q0,qrand]))

#To control interaction / animation, launch the loop via one of the following:

#OpenGL on Linux / windows
vis.show()              #open the window
t0 = time.time()
while vis.shown():
    #do something, e.g. the following
    if time.time() > 5:
        vis.setColor("qrand",0,1,1,0.5)  #sets qrand to show in cyan after 5 seconds
    time.sleep(0.01)    #loop is called ~100x times per second
vis.kill()              #safe cleanup

#Mac OpenGL workaround: launch the vis loop and window in single-threaded mode
#vis.loop()

#for IPython, the screen is redrawn only after a cell is run, so you should just call
#vis.show() in this cell, and then the inner loop

More advanced functions allow you to dynamically launch multiple windows, capture user input, embed the visualization into Qt windows, and create animations as standalone HTML web pages.

Visualization backends

The first time you call a klampt.vis function, the init() function is called to initialize one of four possible backends: PyQt, GLUT, IPython (Jupyter notebook), or HTML (compatible with Google Colab or as standalone web pages).

  • The PyQt and GLUT backends deliver interactive OpenGL visualizations that (typically run in a separate thread from the main thread. Your main thread of code can update the visualization asynchronously.

  • The IPython and HTML backends are single-threaded and require you to structure your code to update the visualization and obtain the output where needed. See the klampt.vis documentation for more details.

If run by default, init() will auto-determine the visualization backend to use. This is usually the most sensible / powerful backend available for your system:

  • Running from a console: use PyQt if available, falling back to GLUT, then HTML. (Note that most vis programs are written assuming OpenGL support and don’t support HTML output.)

  • Running from an IPython notebook: use IPython output.

If you would like to use another backend, you can call vis.init(DESIRED BACKENDS) before any other klampt.vis call. For example, if you’d like to view a PyQT window from an IPython notebook, call vis.init('PyQt') at the top your notebook. Also, if you’d like to use HTML output (Google Colab users), call vis.init('HTML') at the top of your notebook.

Visualization window management

Window creation

it can be thought of as having an existing hidden window which hosts the scene manager. You will then configure the window or scene manager, and in the most cross-platform compatible mode of operation, you will show it using one of the following methods.

  • vis.spin(duration): shows the window until it is closed or duration seconds have elapsed.

  • vis.dialog(): shows the current window in a dialog format, and does not return until the user closes the window or presses the OK button.

  • vis.run(): shows the window, and once the user closes the window, the visualization is killed.

  • vis.kill(): performs all cleanup of the vis module.

These methods block the calling thread until the window is closed. You can call spin and dialog multiple times in a row. If you have PyQt installed, and want to customize the UI, you can use the method

  • vis.customUI(makefunc): takes a 1-parameter function makefunc(glwidget) that takes the Klampt QGLWidget as an argument, creates a QWindow or QDialog to be shown, and returns it.

Multithreaded mode

In Linux and Windows, a multithreaded mode is available which allows you to conveniently run visualizations in parallel with your main code. This means you can very easily pop up a visualization window to observe a processing loop (such as a simulation or planner) in real-time.

Suppose you had a loop like this:

import klampt

world = klampt.WorldModel()
#...configure stuff...
while not done():
  #...do stuff to world...

The corresponding live visualization of the loop would look like this:

import klampt
from klampt import vis

world = klampt.WorldModel()
vis.add("world",world)    #world is now referenced by the vis module and is shared between threads!
#...configure stuff...
vis.show()
while not done() and vis.shown():
  vis.lock()
  #...do stuff to world... #this code is executed at approximately 10 Hz due to the sleep call
  vis.unlock()
  time.sleep(0.1)
if done():
  vis.show(False)         #hides the window if not closed by user

Specifically, the multithreaded mode uses the following functions:

  • vis.show(): shows the current window and returns immediately to the calling thread.

  • vis.shown(): returns True if the window is shown and not closed by the user.

  • vis.show(False): hides the current window.

    Note

    vis.hide() doesn’t do the opposite of vis.show. It refers to hiding items in the scene manager.

When you call show the visualization is run in a separate thread from the main Python script. The visualization and Klamp’t objects that it refers to can then be configured and modified by the main Python thread. However, some care is needed when directly modifying Klamp’t objects that are referred to in the visualization. To prevent conflicts in threading which may cause the program to crash, all references to shared objects in the main thread should be placed between vis.lock() and vis.unlock() calls, as shown in the above code.

Multithreaded mode workaround on Mac

For Mac users, multithreaded mode is not available. You can mimic a multithreaded loop using the vis.loop() function, which takes several callback functions to be run inside the visualization loop. This version is written as follows:

world = klampt.WorldModel()
#...configure stuff...

vis.add("world",world)

def setup():
  vis.show()

def callback():
  #...do stuff to world... #this code is executed at approximately 10 Hz due to the sleep call
  time.sleep(0.1)
  if done():
    vis.show(False)         #hides the window if not closed by user

def cleanup():
  #can perform optional cleanup code here
  pass

vis.loop(setup=setup,callback=callback,cleanup=cleanup)

Note that the loop function can also be run on Linux and Windows, so if you are writing cross-platform code, the main rule to remember is not to use vis.show() outside of a loop setup callback.

The plugin stack

The vis module lets you override or stack plugins together, even with the existing scene graph manager. In fact, the scene graph manager is itself a plugin.

Each window has a plugin stack with at least one plugin. The stack can be modified using the following functions:

  • vis.setPlugin overrides the plugin stack used by the current window.

  • vis.pushPlugin and vis.popPlugin modify the plugin stack used by the current window.

Split screen and multiple windows

To do split screen, call vis.addPlugin(plugin) with the root plugin for the new viewport.

The vis module can handle multiple windows. The vis module stores an active window, which is the window to which subsequent vis calls will be passed. (not the window currently selected by the user). The relevant functions are:

  • vis.createWindow(): creates and returns the identifier for a new window. If this is the first createWindow call, no new window is created, and instead the ID of the hidden window is returned.

  • vis.setWindow(id): changes the active window.

  • vis.getWindow(): returns the active window.

klampt.vis Scene Manager

Using the scene manager, the main thread can easily add and remove items to be drawn. Simple functions are available to build multi-viewport GUIs, to customize appearances, control animations, and other visualization functions. For more information see the documentation of klampt.vis, and the example code in Klampt-examples/Python3/demos/vistemplate.py.

  • vis.add(name,item): adds a named item to the scene manager.

  • vis.clear(): clears all items.

  • vis.remove(name): removes an existing item.

  • vis.hide(name,hidden=True): hides/unhides an existing item.

    Note

    vis.show() doesn’t do the opposite of vis.hide(). To un-hide an item, call vis.hide(False).

  • vis.edit(name,doedit=True): turns on/off visual editing, if the item allows it.

Here are the accepted types in the scene manager.

Type

Notes

Attributes

str

Draws a label

position*

WorldModel

RobotModel

RigidObjectModel

TerrainModel

Geometry3D

PointCloud

size (1)

Vector3

size (5)

RigidTransform

fancy (False), length (0.1), width (0.01)

Config

Shows a ghost of the robot

robot (0)

Configs

If contains 2D or 3D points, draws a polyline (& uses Trajectory attributes)

robot (0), maxConfigs (20)

Trajectory

Draws 2D, 3D, SE(3), or end-effector paths

robot (0), width (3), pointSize (None), pointColor (None), endeffectors (all terminal links)

IKGoal

length (0.1), width (0.01)

coordinates.Point

size (5)

coordinates.Direction

length (0.15)

coordinates.Frame

length (0.1), width (0.01)

coordinates.Transform

Draws a curve between frames

ContactPoint

size (5), length (0.1)

* denotes a mandatory attribute. Values in parentheses are defaults.

Note: color, label, and hide_label are always accepted attributes.

Item path conventions and references

  • The world, if one exists, should be given the name 'world'.

  • Configurations and paths are drawn with reference to the first robot in the world.

  • The Simulator, if one exists, should be given the name 'sim'. Then, the vis module will save movies along simulation time instead of real (wall-clock) time.

For composite items like WorldModels, sub-items can be referred to by passing a tuple or list of strings as the name argument to any of these functions. For example, ("world",robotname,linkname) refers to a given link of a given robot inside the “world” item.

For example, if you’ve added a RobotWorld under the name 'world' containing a robot called 'myRobot', then setColor(('world','myRobot'),0,1,0) will turn the robot green. If 'link5' is the robot’s 5th link, then setColor(('world','myRobot','link5'),0,0,1) will turn the 5th link blue.

To retrieve the path to a sub-item, vis.getItemName(object) can be used. [new in 0.8.3]

Customizing item appearance

TODO: describe these functions

Animations

The scene manager accepts animations for certain types of items. Animations are currently supported for points, so3 elements, se3 elements, rigid objects, and robots.

  • vis.animate(name,animation,speed=1.0,endBehavior='loop'): Sends an animation to the object. May be a Trajectory or a list of configurations.

    • speed: a modulator on the animation speed. If the animation is a list of milestones, it is by default run at 1 milestone per second.

    • endBehavior: either ‘loop’ (animation repeats forever) or ‘halt’ (plays once).

  • vis.pauseAnimation(paused=True): Turns on/off animation globally.

  • vis.stepAnimation(amount): Moves forward the animation time by the given amount, in seconds.

  • vis.animationTime(newtime=None): Gets/sets the current animation time

    • If newtime == None (default), this gets the animation time.

    • If newtime != None, this sets a new animation time.

Scene and camera control

The background color can be changed with vis.setBackgroundColor. In OpenGL modes, a background image can be set using klampt.vis.scene().setBackgroundImage

If PyQTGraph is installed (pip install pyqtgraph), the menu has an “Edit appearance…” item that launches a GUI to edit colors and properties of the scene.

Overall scene appearance can be saved/loaded using vis.saveJsonConfig and vis.loadJsonConfig.

The camera can be modified in several ways.

  • getViewport() returns a GLViewport instance (in OpenGL) or a JSON structure (In IPython / HTML) that can be modified. Then, setViewport() can be called to change the viewport.

  • You can save and load the viewport from files. In PyQt, there are menu items for doing this, but in other backends, this must be done using vis.getViewport().save_file(fn) (These are the same format as the camera files used in the RobotTest, SimTest, and RobotPose apps.)

  • To auto-fit a scene, use autoFitCamera().

  • To follow an object, use followCamera().

User interaction and customization

There are several ways to provide user interaction in the visualizer:

  • Items in the visualization world can be edited using vis.edit(itemname). To retrieve the object’s configuration after or during editing, use vis.getItemConfig(itemname).

    In OpenGL, the editing happens via mouse interaction.

    In Jupyter, a widget will be displayed in the output of the cell in which vis.edit was called. (To customize Jupyter widgets further, you can create them manually.)

  • (OpenGL) Keyboard-triggered actions can be added with vis.addAction. The calling pattern is:

    vis.addAction(lambda: [DO SOMETHING HERE], "My action",'k')
    

    which will trigger the lambda function when ‘k’ is pressed or “My action” is selected from the menu bar. You can also use the prefix 'Ctrl+' or 'Shift+' to require modifiers to be held, e.g. Ctrl+k. More information is available in the addAction() documentation.

  • (OpenGL) Add custom GLPluginInterface plugins to the visualization. See the section below for more details.

  • (PyQt) Embed the visualizer into a Qt window, and add buttons, etc. To use this, you will need to define a hook that will capture the OpenGL window and add it into your main window, such as the following code:

    from klampt import *
    from PyQt5.QtCore import *
    from PyQt5.QtGui import *
    from PyQt5.QtWidgets import *
    
    #TODO: set up world
    
    def make_gui(glwidget):
        #place your Qt code here and place the glwidget where it needs to be
        w = QMainWindow()
        glwidget.setMaximumSize(4000,4000)
        glwidget.setSizePolicy(QSizePolicy(QSizePolicy.Maximum,QSizePolicy.Maximum))
        area = QWidget(w)
        layout = QVBoxLayout()
        layout.addWidget(glwidget)
        layout.addWidget(QPushButton("Click me"))
        area.setLayout(layout)
        w.setCentralWidget(area)
        return w
    
    vis.customUI(make_gui)
    vis.add("world",world)
    vis.show()
    vis.spin(float('inf'))
    

Note that the HTML backend doesn’t support any user interaction.

Making your own plugins

The GLPluginInterface class allows plugins functions to draw, process mouse and keyboard input, etc. Users are also welcome to use Klamp’t object OpenGL calls in their own frameworks. For more information, see the GLPluginInterface documentation and the simple example file Klampt-examples/Python3/demos/gl_vis.py.

For each GUI event (display, mousefunc, etc), the event cascades through the plugin stack until one plugin’s handler catches it by returning True. Note: when implementing a plugin, you should not call any handler functions yourself. Instead, the GUI will call these in response to OS events. As a result, GLPluginInterface handlers are run inside the visualization thread, and will not need to call the vis.lock() and vis.unlock() functions to modify Klamp’t objects.

Handlers:

  • plugin.initialize(): called once when OpenGL has been initialized

  • plugin.displayfunc(): called each refresh cycle. No OpenGL calls have been set up here.

  • plugin.display(): called each refresh cycle, with the background cleared and the current 3D perspective camera viewport set.

  • plugin.display_screen(): called each refresh cycle, with the OpenGL viewport aligned to the window in orthographic projection. Used to draw text.

  • plugin.reshapefunc(w,h): called when the user or OS resizes the window.

  • plugin.keyboardfunc(c,x,y): called when the user types character c with the mouse at (x,y).

  • plugin.keyboardupfunc(c,x,y): called when the keyboard character c is released with the mouse at (x,y).

  • plugin.mousefunc(button,state,x,y): called when the mouse is clicked or released, with a given button, state, and position (x,y)

  • plugin.motionfunc(x,y,dx,dy): called when the mouse is moved to (x,y) with delta (dx,dy) from its previous position.

  • plugin.idle(): called when the GUI is not working.

  • plugin.eventfunc(type,args=""): Generic hook for other events, e.g., button presses, from the GUI. Currently not used.

  • plugin.closefunc(): called before the viewport is closed.

Configuration functions (these may be called during plugin setup, especially during initialize())

  • plugin.add_action(callback,short_name,key,description=None): Defines a new generic GUI action. The action will be available in a menu in Qt or as keyboard commands in GLUT.

  • plugin.reshape(w,h): Asks to resize the viewport.

  • plugin.idlesleep(seconds): Asks to sleep the idle function. Usually called in idle to approximate a fixed-time loop.”“”

  • plugin.modifiers(): Retrieves a list of currently pressed keyboard modifiers, i.e., combinations of ‘ctrl’, ‘shift’, ‘alt’.

  • plugin.refresh(): Asks the GUI for a redraw. If you are animating something, this must be called in idle().

  • plugin.draw_text(point,text,size=12,color=None): Draws text of the given size and color at the point (x,y) or (x,y,z).

  • plugin.click_ray(x,y): Returns the world-space ray (source,direction) associated with the camera click at x,y.

  • plugin.viewport(): Retrieves the Viewport instance associated with the window.

Drawing your own world

You can completely override the standard vis scene manager using your own plugin, but you will be responsible for all UI and OpenGL drawing functions. Klampt provides convenience plugin base classes that show worlds and simulations in the klampt.vis.glrobotprogram module.

The following code shows how to subclass the GLWorldPlugin class, as well as the mousefunc and motionfunc callbacks to capture objects clicked on by the mouse.

import klampt
from klampt import vis
from klampt.vis.glrobotprogram import GLWorldPlugin

class MyPlugin(GLWorldPlugin):
  def __init__(self,world):
    GLWorldPlugin.__init__(self,world)

  def mousefunc(self,button,state,x,y):
    #Put your mouse handler here
    #the current example prints out the list of objects clicked whenever
    #you right click
    print("mouse",button,state,x,y)
    if button==2:
      if state==0:
        print([o.getName() for o in self.click_world(x,y)])
        return
    GLWorldPlugin.mousefunc(self,button,state,x,y)

  def motionfunc(self,x,y,dx,dy):
    return GLWorldPlugin.motionfunc(self,x,y,dx,dy)

world = klampt.WorldModel()
if not world.readFile("Klampt-examples/data/athlete_plane.xml"):
  raise RuntimeError("Couldn't load world")
vis.run(MyPlugin(world))

Compatibility

OpenGL mode

  • Drawable: All of the items listed above, plus SimRobotSensor, SubRobotModel, and Appearance.

  • Editable: RobotModel, RigidObjectModel, Vector3, RigidTransform, Config, coordinates.Point, coordinates.Frame, coordinates.Transform

  • Quirks:
    • All items by default except for WorldModel, RobotModel, RigidObjectModel, and TerrainModel have their labels drawn.

    • “size” attribute of points is in pixels.

    • No shadow mapping.

IPython mode

  • Drawable: all of the items listed above.

  • Editable: RobotModel, RigidObjectModel, Vector3, RigidTransform, Config, coordinates.Point, coordinates.Frame, coordinates.Transform

  • Quirks:
    • Hiding windows and re-showing windows is disabled.

    • vis.update() must be called to receive changes in world object configurations.

    • Does not support plugins.

    • Scene viewports are in a JSON structure format that is incompatible with OpenGL viewports. This will be changed in a future release.

    • Entities in the scene need to have unique identifiers, or else they will not be drawn.

    • Label drawing is disabled.

    • Texture mapping doesn’t work.

    • “size” attribute of points is in absolute units.

    • RigidTransform doesn’t support “fancy” mode.

    • Configs doesn’t support “maxConfigs”.

    • RobotTrajectory does not show end effector trajectories.

    • Curves aren’t drawn between coordinate frames and their parents.

    • setItemConfig doesn’t update the visualization except for WorldModel items. Workaround: either re-add the item, or use vis.nativeWindow().setTransform().

HTML mode

  • Drawable: all of the items listed above.

  • Editable: no user interaction is possible.

  • Quirks: all the quirks from IPython mode, plus the caveats listed in the klampt.vis documentation .

The most compatible way to launch visualizations is to either use vis.run(), vis.debug(), or vis.loop().